In 2013, the Pacific Salmon Foundation embarked on a remarkable partnership with Genome BC and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. This partnership called the Strategic Salmon Health Initiative was started for a variety of reasons, the primary one being the high mortality rate of juvenile salmon during their early ocean migration. There is a strong belief within the scientific community that infectious disease may be a significant factor in this mortality, but not enough is known about what disease agents might affect Pacific salmon in their natural habitats. What is known comes almost exclusively from observations of cultured fish (both in hatcheries and aquaculture). The initiative intends to clarify the presence and/or absence of microbes in Pacific salmon.
New research from the SSHI was published September 3 in the online journal eLife . Three newly discovered viruses—including one from a group of viruses never before shown to infect fish—have been found in endangered Chinook and Sockeye salmon populations. The impact of these viruses on salmon health isn’t yet known, but we do know that two of the viruses impact the same tissues in salmon as other species, and cause serious diseases in those species. Of note, two of the three viruses were found in wild salmon, one was observed in hatchery facilities and all three were associated with Chinook aquaculture. The paper raises questions about whether these viruses are contributing to declines in wild Chinook and sockeye stocks. Further research is required to understand the full implications of these findings.
Prior to these findings, an outbreak of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflamation (or HSMI) was found via the SSHI in fish from one farm. The lesions in the fish are the same as those previously identified by the same histopathologist in farm audit samples collected from farms during 2011-2013. The HSMI finding was formally reported to the industry and Fisheries and Oceans Canada as per the scientific protocol for the project and announced by Fisheries and Oceans Canada <click here for the release>. As HSMI is not an OIE reportable disease, it was not reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. A slide presentation on the HSMI finding can be viewed here.
The initiative is a four-phased program to discover the microbes present in Pacific salmon that may reduce the productivity of our Pacific salmon. The initiative reached a milestone in July of 2015, when the Phase 2a platform evaluation was reviewed by the National Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS), which coordinates the peer review of scientific issues for the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO).
Their review was very positive and approved the use of the technology platform for Phase 2b of the project. The details of the review can be found at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/publications/sar-as/2015/2015_039-eng.html. A one-pager summarizing the findings can be downloaded here.
For questions about the project contact Michael Meneer at email@example.com or 604-664-7664
Learn more about the project and Genome BC: http://www.genomebc.ca/index.php?cID=1235
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